Parallel resistors provide more current (less equivalent resistance). Parallel LEDs or other diodes, share the current as long as they have the same voltage drop. All of the current will flow through the lowest voltage drop diode. And finally, capacitors add up their capacitance when connected in parallel. You can not charge parallel capacitors more than the voltage value of the lowest rated capacitor.
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- Resistors in parallel gives an equivalent of lower resistance than any of their rated values. There is an equal voltage across parallel resistors, and how much current passes through each of them is determined by the voltage, and their resistance. Therefore, 2 equal value resistors will pass twice the total current, and thus act like (equivalent to) a single resistor with half the resistance.
- Diodes/LEDs block a certain amount of voltage while forward biased, and then start passing current pretty much freely after that. Therefore, equal value voltage drop diodes will split the current evenly among them. A lower voltage drop diode will pass all the current, preventing voltage from rising high enough to power a higher forward voltage diode. Current still needs to be set by a resistor or current source.
- Capacitance simply adds up when capacitors are connected in parallel. They will all share a voltage, so they much all be rated to handle the highest voltage that they will be charged to. In addition, very large value capacitors (especially low resistance supercapacitors) should have close to the same voltage before they are connected in parallel.
YouTube video covering this topic.
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Electronics course 7 Parallel components resistors LEDs and capacitors tutorial by electronzap
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