• Rectifier diodes, generally just called diodes, conduct current relatively easily in one direction (forward biased) and block current (up to a breakdown voltage that must be avoided) in the other direction (reverse-biased).
  • LED components (LEDs) also conduct relatively easily in one direction while blocking current in the other direction (up to a breakdown voltage that must be avoided). LEDs light up while passing current while forward biased.
  • Zener diodes come in a number of values, which pass current relatively easily while forward biased, but have a reverse bias voltage (based on zener voltage rating) that they block up to but then safely (within limits) pass current when that voltage is exceeded. This allows you to set a maximum voltage at part of a circuit.

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